That is why there is always an element of surprise when we are exposed to creative work—it always embodies the denial of something we have taken for granted, usually unconsciously. I feel this is so often forgotten, especially in the situation of legacy systems and trying to execute lean product design within larger organizations.

One example that I have been involved in, and which I regret not pushing back harder, was a requirement to use some legacy data services.

## Humanities: Testing Research Hypotheses

Likewise, any real growth hypothesis, results will most likely be skewed by the performance of systems that are not in your control. I want to thank Tim for offering a practical story that elaborates on the principle of confirm the value before worrying about scaling. How refreshing to find your insights!

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Behind every strategy or project design is a set of hypotheses, usually not made explicit. My life work has been using the Logical Framework Approach, a systems thinking and project design methodology based on hypotheses and assumptions. Thanks Sean for bringing strategic management principles to your readers — what you shared is fundamental to success but seldom explored.

I feel this is so often forgotten, especially in the situation of legacy systems and trying to execute lean product design within larger organisations. It may be easier to think of it as a nullifiable hypothesis or one that the researcher seeks to nullify. The null hypothesis is also known as the H 0, or no-difference hypothesis.

The alternate hypothesis, H A or H 1 , proposes that observations are influenced by a non-random factor. In an experiment, the alternate hypothesis suggests that the experimental or independent variable has an effect on the dependent variable.

### What is a hypothesis?

There are two ways to state a null hypothesis. One is to state it as a declarative sentence, and the other is to present it as a mathematical statement. For example, say a researcher suspects that exercise is correlated to weight loss, assuming diet remains unchanged. The average length of time to achieve a certain amount of weight loss is six weeks when a person works out five times a week. The researcher wants to test whether weight loss takes longer to occur if the number of workouts is reduced to three times a week. The first step to writing the null hypothesis is to find the alternate hypothesis.

In a word problem like this, you're looking for what you expect to be the outcome of the experiment. In this case, the hypothesis is "I expect weight loss to take longer than six weeks. Now, the null hypothesis is what you expect if this hypothesis does not happen.

## Assumption vs. Hypothesis - What is a good hypothesis?

In this case, if weight loss isn't achieved in greater than six weeks, then it must occur at a time equal to or less than six weeks. An independent variable is something the researcher changes or controls. A dependent variable is something the researcher observes and measures. In this example, the independent variable is apple consumption — the assumed cause. Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project.

Do students who attend more lectures get better exam results? Your initial answer to the question should be based on what is already known about the topic. Look for theories and previous studies to help you form educated assumptions about what your research will find.

At this stage, you might construct a conceptual framework to identify which variables you will study and what you think the relationships are between them. Now you should have some idea of what you expect to find.

Write your initial answer to the question in a clear, concise sentence. You need to make sure your hypothesis is specific and testable. There are various ways of phrasing a hypothesis, but all the terms you use should have clear definitions, and the hypothesis should contain:. The first part of the sentence states the independent variable and the second part states the dependent variable.

If a first-year student starts attending more lectures , then their exam scores will improve.

- Difference Between a Hypothesis and an Assumption.
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In academic research, hypotheses are more commonly phrased in terms of correlations or effects, where you directly state the predicted relationship between variables. The number of lectures attended by first-year students has a positive effect on their exam scores. If you are comparing two groups, the hypothesis can state what difference you expect to find between them.

First-year students who attended most lectures will have better exam scores than those who attended few lectures.